Kidney stones are hard and small mineral deposits that form inside the kidneys. The stones are commonly made of acid salts and minerals. They have many causes and can affect any part of the urinary tract– from the kidneys to t he bladder. Stones often form when urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together. When kidney stones are large or more than one, they can block the flow of urine.

We at Vimhans PrimaMed Institute of Nephrology & Urology have pioneered the advanced and patient friendly treatments in treating kidney stones. Our world classes Urologists have access to the state-of-the-art equipments and latest technology for the treatment of kidney stones.


Kidney stones commonly have no specific, definite, or sign cause, though several factors may increase the risk. They usually form when urine contains excess crystal-forming substances, such as oxalate, calcium, and uric acid, than the fluid urine can dilute.

Also, urine may lack substances preventing crystals from sticking together and creating ideal environment for the formation of kidney stones.

Types of Kidney Stones

The Types include:

Calcium stones: Majority of kidney stones are calcium stones, commonly in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is substance naturally found in food. The liver also produces oxalates. High dose of vitamin D, dietary factors, intestinal bypass surgery, and other metabolic disorders increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in Urine.

Struvite stones: They commonly form in response to an infection, such as urinary tract infection.
Uric Acid stones: Uric acid stones are usually occurs in people who drink less water or lose much fluid, eat high protein diet, and have gout.
Cystine stones: These stones from in individuals with a hereditary disorder causing the kidneys to excrete too much certain amino acid.


Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
Pain comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
Pain spreading to the lower abdomen and groin
Pink, red or brown urine
Pain or urination
Foul-smelly or cloudy urine
Persistent need to urinate
Fever and chills if an infection is present


Treatment varies, depending on the size, type, and the cause of stones.

Small stones don’t require invasive treatment. People with small stones will be able to pass a small stone by drinking 2 to 3 liter water a day. Pain relievers are commonly recommended to relive mild pain.

Large kidney stones that cannot be treated with conservative methods may require extensive measures including:

For specific kidney stones, the doctor recommends extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). ESWL uses sound waves for creating shock waves that break the stone into tiny pieces that can be easily passed in the urine.

Procedure called ercutaneous nephrolithotomy includes surgical removal of a kidney stone using small telescopes and instruments inserted through a small incision in the back.

Stones are also removed using a thin lighted tube called “ureteroscope” with a camera. Once the stone is located, tools can snare the stone or break it into pieces allowing it to pass through the urine.