Neuromuscular disorders generally affect the nerves that take control over voluntary muscles and the nerves that send/communicate sensory information back to the brain. Neurons (nerve cells) receive and send electrical messages to and from the body to help control the voluntary muscles. When the neurons die or become unhealthy, the communication between the nervous system and muscles breaks down. Consequently, muscles weaken and waste away.

At Vimhans PrimaMed Institute of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Electrical Physiology we have a perfect blend of the latest treatments, support and education. Our team of renowned neuromuscular specialists works with you so that they could develop a personalized treatment plan to help you stay active and independent.

Neuromuscular disorders can be categorized as:

muscular dystrophies – involving the structure of the muscle cells
motor neuron diseases – involving nerve cells in the spinal cord
peripheral motor neuron diseases – involving muscle-controlling nerve cells of the legs, arms, neck and face
myopathies – involving tone and contraction of muscles controlling voluntary movements. It may also include inflammation of muscles or related tissues metabolic diseases of the muscle – involving errors in metabolism in producing energy in muscle cells
neuromuscular junction diseases – involving the site where nerves and muscles meet
neuropathies- involving nerve finer supplying skin/ muscle & other organs.

HNeuromuscular Disorders

Symptoms
Some common symptoms to neuromuscular disorder include:

Muscle loss
Muscle weakness that can lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains
Movement issues
Balance problems
Numbness, tingling, or painful sensation
Double vision
Droopy eyelids
Trouble breathing
Trouble swallowing

Causes

Neuromuscular disorders may be inherited or caused by a spontaneous gene mutation; some may be the outcome of immune system disorders, as well as any systemic illness in body like diabetes or malignancy. The causes can be acute or chronic.

Diagnosis

Our experts at Vimhans PrimaMed examine the patient and take a medical and family history. After checking a patient’s reflexes and muscle strength, and evaluating other symptoms, our physicians order other diagnostic tests, including:

Blood test to check the elevated enzyme
Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to check cerebrospinal fluid
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain and spinal cord
Electromyography (EMG) to record the electrical activity of each muscle
Nerve conduction studies to check how well signals travel from nerve to muscle
Genetic testing to confirm gene mutations
Muscle Nerve biopsy to examine a sample of muscle tissue under a microscope

Treatment

Most of the acute causes are controllable by various therapies especially immune therapies & their early recognition is essential for good outcome. There is no specific cure for many chronic neuromuscular disorders, but some conditions can be effectively managed and treated. Some interventions include:

Drug Therapy- Immunosuppressive drugs can be suggested to treat certain muscle and nervedisorders and diseases of the nerve-muscle junctions.

Managing the underlying disorders like diabetes management, helps in controlling the neuromuscular disorders.

Referrals to appropriate specialists- Patients suffer from neuromuscular disorders mayreceive referrals to surgeons for neurological surgery, orthopedic surgery, thoracic surgery or other types of surgery.

Patient and family education and counseling – Besides individual and family sessions,treatment may also include referral to appropriate support groups or the genetic counselors.

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