Emergency is a term that can be understood relatively. For an orthopedic or ophthalmologic surgeon, an emergency may require operative intervention within hours. On the other hand, cardiothoracic emergencies may require surgical intervention within minutes or seconds.

Vimhans PrimaMed Institute of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Surgery provides timely response for the assessment and management of patients with a wide range of cardiothoracic problems. The institute offers timely response for the:

Provision of operative facility, preoperative workup and postoperative management
Cardiac rehabilitation services that include physiotherapy, nursing, occupational therapy, dietician, cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery follow up.
Registry records and long term record keeping

Below given are some common conditions that need cardiothoracic emergencies:

intractable myocardial ischemia
Either one can kill within minutes.

Intractable Myocardial Ischemia- it occurs when blood flow to the heart is reduced and prevents it from receiving enough oxygen. The reduced blood flow is commonly the outcome of a partial or complete blockage of the heart’s arteries.


neck of jaw pain
a fast heartbeat
shoulder or arm pain
nausea and vomiting
shortness of breath when you are physically active


The conditions causing myocardial ischemia include:

Blood clot- the plaques developed in atherosclerosis can rupture, resulting in a blood clot. The clot may block an artery and lead to severe myocardial ischemia, leading to a heart attack.

Coronary artery disease- Plaques made up commonly of cholesterol build up the artery walls and restricts the blood flow. This condition is also called atherosclerosis and is the most common cause of myocardial ischemia.

Coronary artery spasm- this is an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia.

Chest pain connected to myocardial ischemia may be triggered by:

Physical exertion
Emotional stress
Cocaine use
Cold temperature


Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment of myocardial ischemia is aimed at improving blood blow to the heart muscle. Therefore, the patient with myocardial ischemia may be treated with medications, surgery or both.

When medications don’t respond, more aggressive treatments are needed to improve the blood flow. Procedures include, Angioplasty and stenting, coronary artery bypass surgery, and enhanced external counterpulsation.

Hemorrhage- It’s a type of stroke caused by an artery in the brain bursting and resulting in localized bleeding in the surrounding tissues. The bleeding kills brain cells.


The symptoms of hemorrhage may vary. They depend on the severity of the bleeding, location of the bleeding, and the amount of tissue affected. The common symptoms include:

A sudden severe headache
Weakness in an arm of leg
Seizures with no previous history of seizures
Nausea or vomiting
Tingling or numbness
Changes in vision
Decreased in vision
Difficulty swallowing and speaking
Difficulty reading or writing
Loss of balance
Loss of consciousness


The commonest risk factors and causes of hemorrhage include:

Head Trauma
High blood pressure
Blood vessel abnormalities
Amyloid angiopathy
Liver disease
Blood or bleeding disorders
Brain tumors


Treatment for the bleeding in the brain commonly depends in the cause, location, and intensity of the hemorrhage. Surgery might be needed to alleviate swelling or prevent bleeding. Doctors may also prescribe some medications including corticosteroids, painkillers, or diuretics for reducing swelling, and anticonvulsants to control seizures.